Category: Business

3 Benefits of an Aluminum Tool Box

Whether you have a trailer or tractor, an aluminum tool box can be a great choice for you. Although stain-less makes great toolboxes, aluminum has a number of advantages over it. In this article, we are going to take a closer look at three primary benefits of using aluminum tool boxes. Read on to find out more.

1. Malleability

Steel is known for its strength. That’s why many truck drivers prefer steel for their tool boxes. However, aluminum tends to be more malleable, which means it offers more flexibility. Aside from this, it is more effective when it comes to absorbing energy.

For instance, if you get involved in an accident, aluminum will flex and bend rather than break apart. Besides, you will find it a lot easier to remove the dents post an accident. On the other hand, steel tends to break or crack. Moreover, it’s much more difficult to get the dents out from a steel plate.

Also, the malleability of this soft metal makes it much easier for professional fabricators to make toolboxes of different shapes. In simple terms, aluminum is much easier to make different things.

2. Lightweight

The second major advantage of aluminum is that it’s much lighter than other types of metal, such as steel. However, the difference of impact has no big impact on the amount of weight the metal can carry. On the other hand, steel is much heavier and offers a density of more than 250%.

If you are into raw numbers, know that a cubic foot of pure aluminum can weigh around 168 pounds. On the other hand, a cubic foot of steel can weigh more than 494 pounds. Therefore, if you are looking for something lightweight, aluminum is a much better choice. You can move this metal from one place to another without putting in a lot of effort.

3. No Rust

Another big advantage of an aluminum tool box is that it will never rust. The fact is that steel will rust with the passage of time no matter how you treat it. Therefore, truckers tend to prefer stainless steel toolboxes, headache racks, and bumpers.

The good thing about aluminum is that it tends to oxidizes when left in open air. As a result, a thin film of oxidation accumulates over the metal surface. And that thin layer protects the metal from rust. The same film offers protection for the aluminum canoes bottom.

As said earlier, some people prefer steel while others prefer aluminum. However, if you like aluminum, you may want to check out a wide spectrum of products before making a decision. For truck toolboxes, however, this metal is the perfect choice for a number of reasons, such as malleability, lightweight and better strength, to name a few.

Long story short, if you have been looking to opt for the best metal to make truck tool boxes, we suggest that you give a go to aluminum. In fact, you won’t regret your decision when making this choice.

Coronavirus Driving People From The Stock Market

The coronavirus’ stock market impact is immense. It is spooking stock markets. The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) shed 12% or over 3000 points over five days, February 24-28, the largest 5-day drop since the Great Recession. The DJIA recorded the biggest single day drop (1191) during that week on February 27.

China is a key player in companies’ supply chain. That’s why analysts fear firms in China won’t deliver parts to companies like Apple and Walmart, which will cause these firms’ results to suffer. The fear of the unknown is causing panic. Stock markets hate uncertainty, and this virus comes with an abundance of uncertainty: When will there be a vaccine? How will countries contain it, and so on?

Coronavirus’ Stock Market Impact Could Linger

Nobody knows how long the coronavirus’ stock market impact will last. But history shows us that stock markets over-react and then continue their upward momentum. Today, the rapid proliferation of the virus increases fear, so people are over-reacting. We need to pause and not rush to the exit.

Markets recovered quickly from past viral outbreaks. Will the coronavirus’ stock market impact lead to a realized capital loss to you? The market change, per se, does nothing. You lose funds only when you sell below market price. Some firms’ results will suffer in the short-to-medium term because of insufficient inventory. Other companies will gain. Although we do not know the virus’ severity, judging from past market responses, caution is the key response.

Are you a value investor with targeted companies in your portfolio? Examine your goals and stay the course unless you see changes in the firm’s intrinsic value. Have you been speculating, looking to make a quick buck with a margin account? If so, you will have a challenge because banks will call your margin. That’s the inherent risk when you use a margin account to speculate.

If you are not a speculator but a value investor, now could be the perfect time to identify value stocks and select those at bargain prices. There will be several. Whoever you are, be cautious, reject the herd mentality, and reflect on these matters:

Stay The Course

  1. Review or develop an investment goal and plan before you adjust your portfolio. Why have you been or do you wish to invest? Your reason will decide your investment strategy. My preferred strategy is to buy blue chip equities with a long history of increasing dividends. I hold these shares, review their fundamentals from time to time, and act when there is a permanent change.
  2. You will find value stocks today. Market fluctuations provide a great opportunity to buy solid companies with good track records. Remember, you lose, or gain on sale only, not when markets fluctuate.
  3. When your investments’ intrinsic value change, confirm your strategy, and sell your holdings, even at a loss; don’t time the market recovery. The market could be down for several years like the Tokyo Stock Market, which has been below its bubble heights for over two decades.
  4. Don’t let generic asset mixes influence your asset allotment between stocks, bonds, cash, commodities. You are unique, and your mix should fit you at your life stage. Think before rushing to so-called safe-haven commodity assets such as gold that has no intrinsic value.
  5. If you are in the retirement red zone, five to seven years to retirement, your goal must be capital preservation, so avoid the stock market.
  6. Don’t panic: focus on your goals, plan, long-term strategy. Update these and ensure they fit your needs and your risk profile.
  7. This, too, will pass, but God alone knows the timing.

5 Benefits of Using Tubes Packaging for Cosmetic Containers

In the cosmetics industry, we can see a great increase in demand for different types of cosmetic products, such as hair removal, anti-aging, and sunscreen products. The interesting thing is that both men and women are the buyers of these products. These products are sold in attract containers that protect the integrity of the material inside. Let’s read about some of the benefits of tubes as cosmetic containers.

For cosmetic containers, plastic tubes are becoming the ideal choice. The reason is that they are attractive and versatile. That’s the reason they can satisfy the needs of this fast-growing industry. Given below are some reasons these products are a great choice. Read on.


Today, consumers are quite conscious as far as spending money is concerned. They try their level best to save as much money as possible. If you want to reduce your packaging costs, you can try the squeeze tubes.

Fancy cosmetic containers, such as glass are quite expensive. Therefore, they add to the price of the product. On the other hand, plastic tubes use the best technology available. Therefore, they are the most affordable option you can try. The cost is low but the container quality is great.


Unlike plastic or glass, plastic tubes offer more versatility. The thing is that they are designed to carry a lot of a substance, such as a sunscreen or shampoo. Apart from this, the openings are adjustable to accommodate the product viscosity. This allows you to store different types of substances, such as cosmetic foundations, astringent toners, and creams, just to name a few. So, versatility is another primary benefit of using these tube containers.


Heavy jars of plastic and glass containers are quite eco-friendly. As a matter of fact, small containers don’t waste plastic as they are recyclable. Actually, the makers of these products make use of green processes in order to have a minimal effect on the environment. Therefore, if you are looking for an eco-friendly option, we suggest that you try out these containers.


Unlike glass containers, plastic tubes are more portable. The reason is that they cover less space, easier to transport and are less fragile. They are much easier to ship as they are more stable. Plus, they can make sure that the quality of the product is always high. You can carry multiple tubes in your own pocket.

Easy to use

Unlike jars that need to be unscrewed before each use, tubes are much easier and convenient. All you need to do is pop the lid, press the tube and the substance will come out. Therefore, they are much easier to handle than glass containers, which makes them an ideal choice for most users.

Long story short, these are the benefits of tubes as cosmetic containers. If you are a manufacturer of a cosmetic product, we suggest that you consider using cosmetic tubes. They can help you bring the costs down and offer your products at a much lower price. Hope this helps.

The Benefits of Stainless Steel Roller Chains

Typically, roller chains can be found in a lot of mechanically powered systems. For instance, you can find them in a number of environments like automotive industries and agriculture systems. Examples of automotive industries they are used in are bicycles and motorcycles. In this article, we are going to take a closer look at some of the common benefits of roller chains made of stainless steel. Read on to find out more.

Rollers chains are also commonly used in conveyor belts and many other industrial assembly environments. Aside from this, you can find these systems in many other environments too.

Advantages of Stainless Steel Roller Chains

Although these products are made of other metals as well, stainless steel is the most common one. This is because this metal offers a lot of benefits. Some of them are listed below. Please note that this list doesn’t talk about all the benefits the unit offers.

Food Applications

Stainless steel roller chains are quite popular in the food industry for many reasons. One of the main reasons is that the steel offers immense strength unlike other metal types you can find and use.

Therefore, products made of this metal can withstand even extreme conditions. Another good thing is that it’s much easier to clean. For instance, in an environment where food packaging, processing and handling is done, you may need to clean the chain more frequently. This is what makes these roller chains a great choice.

Temperature Resistance

Another great thing about these roller chains is that they can work fine even if you place them in an environment where temperature exceeds 400 Celsius. In the same way, they won’t stop working even if you use them in a place where temperature drops below -20 Celsius. This is what makes it an ideal choice in environments that are not good for other metals.

Corrosion Resistance

They are also corrosion resistant even if used in acidic or alkaline environments. In many industries, these roller chains are used either in alkaline or acidic settings. This is why they are preferred in a lot of industries. Aside from this, it offers quite low magnetic permeability. Therefore, we suggest that you opt for them instead of other options out there.


Another good thing about these chains is that they are heat treated for a lot better temperature resistance. Plus, they are put under a lot of stress for testing purposes to reduce the chances of stretching issues or premature leakage. So, as far as safety is concerned, this is the best choice you can take. They can save you a lot of money due to their long lifespan.

Long story short, these are some of the most common reasons why these roller chains are quite popular these days. Although they can’t be the best option for all types of applications, they can work well in many environments. Therefore, if you want to opt for them, we suggest that you give them a go. You won’t regret your choice.

Lemon Tea Powder Sachets

Wait. Stop, for a second, let’s take a quiz, shall we? So, how many times do you look around to see the beauty of the nature, even for a minute? You don’t, because you do not have that much of a time, right? Okay, let’s try something else, what was the last time you had a little chit chat with your family at tea table? You don’t remember, right? And well, even if you do, you were really busy with your work or something. So let’s accept the fact that there are a lot of burdens we have to imbibe in our daily lives right? A lot of stress, a lot of competition, and what not’s of our inevitably leads us to having a headache, immense lethargic feeling and an overall a dizzy kind of sense. Even, sometimes the hazards of a long train journey or jet lag makes us tired, and we are often posed with problems such as loss of sleep or sleep deprivation as an outcome of this immense level of stress we put on ourselves. Since we are all at home in Quarantine season fighting off a deadly epidemic, how about we take a little pledge? A pledge to enjoy the nature around us, a pledge to spend a quality time with our family, for a while, since we are kind of free from our regular stressed jobs, how about we give ourselves a little time and go on doing that for our betterment along with relief provided in one packet, in a form of your favorite beverage?
Chaikapi brings you the opportunity to make you work on yourself with an easier feeling. As WHO says, working all the time and no relaxation could be dangerous for your health, Chaikapi offers their range of instant tea premix powder sachets to provide you a moment of refreshment during your long days at work, and to make your boring days at home a little bit of fun.
Chaikapi provided lemon tea premix powder sachets is a beverage derived from tea leaves that allows people to quickly prepare tea by adding hot water. Hence, warm up the chill on shivering winter days, while giving yourself a refreshing breeze to yourself on summer days. Chaikapi’s Lemon Tea Premix does the job both ways while giving you the best quality tea powder mix made from the liquor extracted with extra care from tea leaves. There are several advantages of instant lemon tea premix powders and those obviously include speed of preparation (instant tea dissolves quickly in hot water), but it also gives you a relief in a moment, for instance if you’re having a bad headache and cannot even indulge in the long process of making yourself a cup of lemon-tea, Chaikapi provided lemon tea powder sachets would be there to save you from that disastrous situation.
Chaikapi brings to you its an wide, varied range of lemon tea premix powders to make your evenings perfect, your tea times more enjoyable along with a touch of refreshment.
Satisfying blend of soothing tea with a touch of lemon, surrounds you with its aroma once consumed. Smooth on the palate with an appeasing lemony note, finishes with a balance of a sweetly-sour after-taste. This is a premix powder sachet, just add your own way of serving and enjoy!

5 Things You Must Consider When Choosing Hardwood Floor

When it comes to hardwood floors, nowadays there is a great variety of woods, finishes and colours available on the market. You can easily get overwhelmed when searching for the perfect floor for your home.

As you evaluate your options, you have to consider what the wood material brings in the form of benefits for your home. Hardwood floors are convenient and durable, but above all else, they add warmth and character to the room. Not every type of wood is equal, so you will do good to consider the following things:

Type of wood – generally, there are two types of wood – engineered and solid hardwood. The latter is formed by milling solid logs and consists of groove and tongue parts along the short and long edges. The solid type comes in pre-finished and unfinished options, planks or strips of variable thickness. As for engineered hardwood, it is comprised of a few layers of plywood and composite, with a layer of solid hardwood on top. The major difference comes in floor composition. Solid wood is likely to expand/contract with different humidity levels, which means it is best to install it on the ground floor. On the other hand, engineered flooring is more stable and therefore can be installed on all levels.

Wood species – wood flooring can be made of many different kinds of wood. The main thing to consider is durability. Some woods are harder and endure everyday wear and tear better than others. Red oak is one of the most popular options, for example; however maple and hickory are more durable. The harder the wood, the better it is to have it installed in high-traffic areas in your home.

Appearance, grain colour and grain – due to the variety of wood species such flooring comes in, you can easily select a colour that matches your d├ęcor. For example, if your home leans towards the country-style, wide plank floors and defined grains with distressed appearance are perhaps the best options. As for the contemporary setting, you can use any wood, based on the stain and finish. Whitewash, pewter and charcoal finishes have the potential to transform wood species into a great masterpiece.
Finish – finish plays a key role in what the floor looks like. You will find that the same wood species seem quite different with clear gloss and wire-brush finish. The effect is due to different gloss levels and techniques used. Keep in mind that hardwood flooring comes either pre-finished or unfinished. The former has the finish applied in a controlled factory environment, while unfinished flooring is done on-site.

Installation – all types of hardwood are installed by nailing, glueing or stapling planks to a subfloor. While it is true you can do this one your own; it is best to consider professional help, to minimise the risk of mistakes.

Now that you know more about hardwood floors, you can easily pick the best one for you.

Sustainability is an Ambitious Goal For Humans.

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Sustainability is an ambitious goal for humans. We do however have a chance to create a sustainable environment that will allow the human race to endure infinitely. To achieve this we must start with sustaining the earth. The earth provides the raw materials, which become commodities, which are used in the development of everything essential to life, including food, water, and shelter. Water, land and air, are the basic foundations of life that can also serve as representative of our resource depletion and sustainability efforts. The intangible coexistent requirement for future sustainability is a strong social or culture environment that will be responsible for developing processes, policies, laws and other mechanisms that will support sustainability. In 1991, Mohan Munasinghe and Ernst Lutz said:

“Sustainable development is an approach that will permit continuing improvements in the quality of life with a lower intensity of resource use, thereby leaving behind an undiminished or even enhanced stock of natural resources and other assets.”

Our goal should be to work toward restoring and maintaining their function and integrity so that their services and human uses can be sustained over the long term. This can be done by incorporating triple bottom line in our personal lives. According to Lozano (2007) the dominant socio-economic paradigm, has led to behaviors that are increasingly pervasive in our society today. We as individuals should set goals that will help restore our global ecosystem, foster healthy living and reduce our impact on the local environment. We should look at our activities and consider some of the not-so-positive ways in which we impact the future and the globe. We should view in a new way the daily decisions we make about energy use, water consumption, recycling, transportation and food.

The first green revolution was considered a failure in terms of environment because did not work alongside nature. It failed because of bad governance. The small farmers were eventually left behind and were not able to get assistance with their farms. Their voices were not heard. The voices of the people who bought the larger farms were heard instead. Alongside this new pollutants arrived such as pests, petroleum, fertilizers, etc… the green revolution turned out to be a failure, they did not listen and take heed to nature and the local farmers.

Green 2 revolution is a good idea because hopefully they have learned from past mistakes and are more keen to understanding and realizing what truly needs to be done to sustain. Perhaps this time they will work alongside nature. According to Rogers there are five elements for the new green 2 revolution. They are:

“1. A redistributive policy that favors the poor by providing them access to land and modern inputs.

2. Increased public funding for less favorable agricultural land.

3. Increased attention to the needs of small holder farms and landless laborers, including credit.

4. Increased investment in rain fed agricultural areas in both Asia and Latin America.

5. Decentralized agricultural research, development, and extension systems focusing on particular issues such as soil and water management”(Rogers, 2008)
These are very sound elements and if put to use correctly should be very successful. They need to work alongside nature as well as the local people…what will sustain the environment yet sustain the people too!

According to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the purpose of environmental sustainability is to “foster and promote the general welfare, to create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony and fulfill the social, economic, and other requirements of the present and future generations”. To achieve this goal, it is vital for us to always apply the triple bottom approach. Nowadays, living a “green” life is the talk of the day as many people are beginning to realize the consequences of our actions to the environment. Despite all the growing scientific evidence of the detrimental effects of some of our social and economic activities to the environment, a significant number of people continue to deny the effects of global warming for ideological reasons. For us to achieve the goal of sustainability, we all need to look past our ideological differences and focus on the scientific evidence presented before us.

The Green Revolution is a concept that was employed to increase the produce of farmers in developing countries, so as to fight the famine that was a plaque to some developing countries in the world. Despite the fact that it improves the social and economic status in those countries like India and Mexico through an increase in food production, it had its drawbacks on the environment. The use of fertilizers and pesticides led to an increase in soil and water pollution. These countries depended on primitive water sources for drinking and irrigation like “wells”, streams, and rivers. These water sources got polluted by the chemicals for the fertilizers and pesticides, thereby destroying marine life and other elements of the ecosystem like the nitrogen fixing bacteria which are essential in recycling some of the elements required to sustain human life. Repeated use of the same piece of farm coupled with the chemicals and land slide due to irrigation led to soil infertility; “shifting cultivation” wasn’t practiced anymore. The use of a few genetically engineered seeds and chemicals led to decrease in crop diversity.

As a consequence of the Green Revolution, there is a steep increase in the world’s population today. The new challenge to the world is to sustain this rapidly growing population. To do so, we need to explore the field of research and technology which is the main idea behind the Green II Revolution. I believe we can handle these challenges by implementing the concepts of Green II Revolution. To me, Green II Revolution is a good idea. Besides the fact that it minimizes the drawbacks of the Green Revolution and to cope with the demands of the rising population, effective investment in research and biotechnology will create jobs and other social and economic benefits to the people and the community as a whole. By constantly striving for better techniques and production of more humane and environmentally friendly pesticides, fertilizers, and irrigation methods, we can sustain our environment. Knowing that the ecosystem is dynamic, and that every action we take has its pros and cons, we can maintain the welfare of humans without destroying our environment by maintaining a balance between our social, economic, and environmental activities.

A pessimistic view during the green revolution was that the Malthusian catastrophe would occur. However, these predictions have failed to materialize. Hiis prediction of impending famine did not prove self evident. The world’s population had doubled by 1923 and doubled again by 1973 without fulfilling Malthus’ prediction. Mathusian view that “population cannot increase without the food to support it” is true but the technological advancements allow the human race to produce more food. A Malthusian Paul R. Ehrlich, in his 1968 book The Population Bomb, said that “India couldn’t possibly feed two hundred million more people by 1980” and “Hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs.” Ehrlich warnings failed to materialize when India became self-sustaining in cereal production. Ehrlich states in his book the following. “As the most powerful nation in the world today, and its largest consumer, the United States cannot stand isolated. We are today involved in the events leading to famine; tomorrow we may be destroyed by its consequences.” Even though the food production dilemma has been solved, Ehrlich said in an interview that George W. Bush was his environmental nightmare.
The scarcity of food due to increased population has been a concern even before the times today of larger populations. Malthusian documents, “at Nookie Sound, in the year 1794, fish had become very scarce and bore an exorbitant price; as, either from the badness of the season or from neglect, the inhabitants had experienced the greatest distress for want of provisions during winter.” Some will always be pessimistic about our sustainability. In many ways pessimism is needed, for this view may have driven India to solve their food problem rather than ignore it.

In conclusion, the basic problem of the Green revolution was the absence of the triple bottom line approach which must be balanced environmentally, economical and socially. In addition, institutions failed. Governments gave preferential treatment to large farmers. The degradation of the land, the increasingly unequal distribution of income and increase in poverty all lead to threats to peace and security. Green revolution was good but emphasized more on the economic. It maximized the economic at the detriment of the environment and social implications. Sustainable development must be enduring. Another factor that affected the Green revolution was unequal distribution of products between the poor and rich countries. They developed countries contributed more in terms of technology and consumed more than what is required. Green 2 was more even in their distribution of the worlds wealth. Rogers viewed population growth would not be a significant factor in environmental degradation. Many Malthus believers thought that population would be the failure of that era. In fact it was institutional rules that initiated the failure and created poverty and imbalances in income not the population growth.

Thomas Woodfin is an expert article writer. Achieving sustainability [] occurs through the process of sustainable development – discovering, adopting, implementing, establishing, and adjusting appropriate institutions, policies, strategies, and technologies to produce a just transition that moves society toward the envisioned idealized state of existence. Democracy [] is often viewed in the same way, as a process of working toward the ideal.

In Applying the Concepts and Reflecting on the History of Sustainability

In applying the concepts and reflecting on the history of sustainability, what do we (as a people) want to sustain and in what ways can individuals work toward sustainability? Why was the first green revolution considered a failure in terms of the environment? Why do you think the green 2 revolution is a good idea?
discovering, growth of wealth, sustainability, democracy, adopting, implementing, Green Revolution, agriculture, food production, establishing, and adjusting appropriate institutions, policies, strategies, and technologies, G2R, seeds, fertilizers, roads

In applying the concepts and reflecting on the history of sustainability, what do we (as a people) want to sustain and in what ways can individuals work toward sustainability? Why was the first green revolution considered a failure in terms of the environment? Why do you think the green 2 revolution is a good idea?

“The earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need, but not every man’s greed.” Gandhi
This discussion is obviously pretty related to the one we had last week. What would we do to ensure that we come up with a sustainable development project?
We would like to emphasize on the importance of “good governance” for this discussion since it is one of the main factors that determines whether or not a project is sustainable. Among others, poor governance was one of the reasons why the first green revolution failed.
With the second green revolution however, we see how good governance (theoretically) plays a huge role in shifting the outcome to a more successful one. The four principles of good governance (accountability, participation and decentralization, predictability, and transparency) are pretty much characteristics that would allow a sustainable development project officer to be successful.
First, we thought that we have to make sure to note that we (as people) want to sustain our environment and our natural resources before anything else. Our country/world’s economy sure is vital but we will not be able to use the term economy if we abuse what actually runs our economies all around the planet. Balancing our environmental and natural resources consumption would therefore be the first step towards achieving sustainability.
Once we determine the latter, we as individuals could work towards sustainability by exercising our right to participation. Again, participation is one of the four principles of good governance, so we need to realize that WE are the main stakeholders and beneficiaries in every nation’s development efforts. By doing so, we eliminate the risks of corruption by those in power, we decrease the gaps between rich and poor which was one of the major issues faced by the GR.
Julia Butterflies’ concept of making sustainability mainstream through individual action was quite interesting, while her actions are a bit extreme she set out to prove a point and did just that by living in the redwood tree she wanted to save…the key points that I want to make are that by her actions she caused questions to be asked by loggers and other community members, conversations were started and she saved the redwoods for a short time…importantly the thought process began, while we can’t all save the world alone; we can start a revolution.

Sustainability, I am struggling with whether sustainable development truly means to sustain any and all human activities…while I believe that sustainability is truly necessary and there is a need for real change because resources are diminishing as nature and the environment are suffering, but how much can realistically be changed? Should we be trying to take a step back or a step forward? Is there a way to capitalize on globalization, but still sustain? Will globalizing third world countries hurt or help long term?
Balance among the determinants of sustainability will help transition towards more sustainable societies and cause collaboration. It almost seems like common sense; consumption of too much of anything isn’t good…too much food can cause you to be fat, too much sun will cause cancer, etc. Consumption…reducing food consumption would help in the US in more than one regard…obesity…Eco-efficiency/economic efficiency…collaborate vs. compete…
In regards to production let’s become leaders ourselves and implement ways to help unsustainable production.
“Sustainability represents an idealized societal state where people live long, dignified, comfortable, and productive lives, satisfying their needs in environmentally sound and socially just ways so as to not compromise the ability of other human beings from doing the same now and into the distant future. It is, in effect, an attempt to merge development and nature conservation efforts in a mutually beneficial way for the common good of the planet’s present and future generations alike. In practice, achieving sustainability occurs through the process of sustainable development – discovering, adopting, implementing, establishing, and adjusting appropriate institutions, policies, strategies, and technologies to produce a just transition that moves society toward the envisioned idealized state of existence. Democracy is often viewed in the same way, as a process of working toward the ideal.” (Kermit, 2007)

“In the case of sustainability, the ideal consists of the simultaneous establishment of the two spatially and temporally essential and universal conditions – “environmental integrity” and “social justice” – that must be maintained over the long haul.” (Kermit, 2007)
The first Green Revolution was considered a failure because of bad governance and rich farmers didn’t give the poor farmers are chance to take advantage of the subsidized fuel and in turn caused an “increased income gap between the rich and poor” (p. 74)

The “Green 2 Revolution” is an agriculture development which is needed to achieve sustainable development in the world. What I like about the Green 2 Revolution is that the five policy elements are trying to promote sustainable development and make a significant impact on poverty reduction. For example the first policy “redistributes policy that favors the poor by providing them access to land and modern impact”. (p. 74) hopefully, this can help the poor help themselves, which is the long term goal n all cases. “good governance includes predictability, fair, compensation pursuant to law will be required for a successful redistributive policy.” (p. 74)
Increased investment in rain-fed agricultural areas in both Asia and Latin America. “as a one-time cattle owner in South America and understanding the need to be able to level the land and knowing that just because an area may get ample rain, doesn’t mean the farm is successful. Many factors come in to play and need to be understood.

The woman beggar on page 77 that was able to take on a micro-loan is a prime example of “showing someone how to fish and you feed them for life” giving someone willing and wanting to learn can give them a chance for change and respect. It enables them to produce their own goods and earn a living. While, microfinance isn’t the key way for change, as “micro finance can help the working poor, but not generally the poorest of the poor” (p. 77)
In response to the questions on the failures of GR, a few points are worth mentioning:
1- Despite its production success the GR favored the big agricultural corporations over the small farms leading to a huge disparity between rich and poor. The small farmers had no say in the way the GR worked (centralization and lack of participation) which is a sign of poor governance.

2- The use of pesticides and fertilizers works best on soils with a high degree of water control, so what happens to the small farms that cannot afford to pay for such technologies?

3- The GR was completely dependent on the new technologies, where resources were consumed at unreasonable levels compared to the GR2 which worked with nature rather than used nature’s resources (issue of system of irrigation and drainage).

4- The increase in production was mostly done for rice and wheat, leaving regions where such production is not very popular, struggling to find a way out of their food crises like Africa.

5- Greed is what has harmed the GR in the past and will harm the GR2 sooner or later. We need to find a way to develop policies and programs that are fair to all stakeholders, without destroying our earth by unreasonably using up its resources.

Factors That May Have an Impact on Breweries Equipment Cost

Breweries can be found in all sizes, from small micro-units or large commercial units. Therefore, these systems use a diversity of processes based on the degree of automation and type of beer. For instance, in large breweries, the making process is divided into multiple sections. In this article, we are going to talk about the cost of brewery equipment. Read on.

Factors that may have an impact on the brewery equipment costs

All breweries should figure out the equipment cost based on the beer volume they want to produce. There are three factors that have an impact on the cost: material, new/used equipment and size of the brewhouse.

Brewery Equipment Material

Typically, the equipment is made of different types of materials. However, the most common materials are stainless steel and copper.

Brewery Equipment Condition

Apart from the size, the equipment cost may vary based on whether it’s new or used. Often, new business owners have a limited budget to work with. Therefore, they opt for used equipment. Given below are the most common equipment required for the business:

  • Kegs
  • Storage tanks
  • Fermentation tanks
  • Kettles
  • Boilers

Aside from these, cleaning tools, refrigerators, bottlers, cooling equipment, and filters are also on the list of essential equipment irrespective of the brewery size.

Size of the Brewhouse

A brewhouse has a lot of components like a whirlpool, boil kettle, hot liquor tank, lauter tun and mash mixer. Larger units may make use of a 5-vessel brewhouse where each component is a separate vessel. Based on the size, the cost of equipment will vary.

Fermentation Tanks

After the preparation of wrot, the next step in the process is fermentation. This process happens in the fermentation tanks that feature a cone-shaped bottom. The cost of small tanks is around $400, while bigger units may cost as high as $2,500.

Brite Tanks

Beer goes through the filtration process and is pumped into a different tank for secondary fermentation. This tank is called the Brite tank and allows the beer to clarify and carbonate before it’s transferred into kegs, cans or bottles. At time brewpubs, beer is also served from the brite tanks.

So, the non-jacketed brite tanks may cost between $1,400 and $4,600 for a 1-bbl and 7-bbl model respectively. On the other hand, the cost of a 5-bbl tank is around $5,800. If you need large tanks, you can contact the supplier for custom quotes.


For beer storage, brewers use kegs even if they store the beer in cans or bottles eventually. Alternatively, they may serve or sell beer to bars and restaurants in kegs. The most common size is a 0.5 bbl keg that sells for $125, give or take.

To protect the taste and prevent spoilage, kegs are also washed. Although small breweries can wash kegs manually, larger units use a keg washer for better efficiency and lower costs.

The Takeaway

The cost of brewery equipment depends upon a lot of factors, such as your location, licensing, building expenses and brewhouse size, just to name a few. So, you may want to consider these factors when making the decision.

Effective Supply Chains Key to Delighting Customers and Creating Stakeholder Value

Firms need to focus on maximizing value in their supply chain-series of interrelated activities to move a product or service from its originating point to the customer. It is the linkages involved in delivering a product or service most productively for the customer and the business. It is vital to operations management and crucial to deliver consistent, high-quality products on-time to customers, and to create value for the business.

Each Link Delivers Value for the Customer

The chain’s activities range from accessing raw materials or sub components, to delivering the final product or service to the customer. Walmart is a wholesaler and retailer in a large supply chain. The more parties involved, the greater the probability of issues:

raw materials' manufacturers > components' manufacturers >
manufacturing and assembly plant > wholesalers > retailers

Wherever you sit in the chain you will depend on someone to deliver your part or product at a particular time. PrimeTime Co Ltd, (Prime), a component manufacturer in an automobile industry supply chain, sat in the middle. Management agreed a contract with assembly plant, AutoCo, to produce and deliver 100 units daily. Prime’s contract included a penalty clause for missed delivery. Units had to be delivered by 4:00 PM daily or Prime would pay AutoCo the cost of downtime waiting for Prime’s shipment-downtime computed based on a particular formula including AutoCo’s overhead costs.

Practical Application

Prime provided AutoCo with two names to call anytime about any production and quality issue, including increased production and rescheduling delivery. By agreement, AutoCo had its own quality specialist on site at Prime when Prime manufactured the part for AutoCo. That specialist had final approval on the acceptable quality of that item. This worked well because of the excellent transparent relationship between both companies.

AutoCo gave Prime a tentative delivery schedule each month. By 6:00 AM each day, Prime accessed AutoCo’s ordering system to see actual requirements for the day. The system required precision, and Prime monitored it hourly. Prime saw this as a huge challenge so management provided needed resources and careful attention to the people and process. The system has worked well for several years with a 99% compliance.

Answers three questions at the outset: What to outsource, to whom, and when? Next, ensure the chain has at least these four features:

Needed Partner Traits

  1. Highly visible links understood by each participant: The system is as good as the weakest link. You might be the wholesaler, but you must become comfortable with each segment and understand probable risks of failure in different links. In some businesses, this risk is more critical than others. Delays might be too costly to customers to capture significant outsourcing benefits.
  2. Collaboration to deliver acceptable results throughout: Collaborating isn’t easy. One essential issue is the alignment of incentives. Prime had a huge incentive to deliver on time because of the high cost of AutoCo’s downtime. The ideal model for successful collaboration is benefit-sharing with partners. Collaboration becomes even more complicated when different countries, cultures, time zones, and other differences exist. Nevertheless, cooperation is crucial.
  3. Customer-demand focus instead of production-demand through the chain: The lead company (Walmart, or AutoCo) needs to keep partners aware of customers’ needs and encourage them to add value to the finished product. This awareness can improve competitiveness of the entire chain and provide additional benefits to each participant.
  4. Transparent and helpful communication throughout the chain: Communication keeps members abreast of developments impacting their contributions to the chain. Besides, meaningful communication allows members to respond quickly to opportunities and challenges.

Disruption Risks Could Negate Benefits

In the late 1990s, I became Vice President Marketing for the Bauxite, Alumina, and Specialty Chemicals of my former employer Alcan Inc. (now part of Rio Tinto), and explored outsourcing parts of our supply chain. However, the potential disruption risks were too high, so we did not proceed. This decision produced a crucial lesson: sometimes, we must ignore significant outsourcing benefits because the low probability of disruption could be devastating to the overall system.